Someone in our development team has reproduced it, but it is not reproducible every time. We have a fix and we’re going to see if we can update the downloadable product on the server with the fixed version. I’ll keep you updated.
In the meantime, in an attempt to find a workaround – do you get the problem if you run as admin?
Following on from Paula's reply, it would be useful if you could provide the ActivityLog.xml created by Visual Studio to allow us to check the cause of the failure you saw. If you start Visual Studio from the Windows 10 search box ie where Frag mich etwas is displayed, by typing
and running from the option you see
ActivityLog.xml will be created in the \Users\<your-id>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\VisualStudio\15.0_<vs-id> folder.
in the ActivityLog.xml is only Repetition from the message you could read in the screenshot. No an other informations. I think, the best proceed is wait for the fix in Installation procedure.
@Paula Installing and starting with admin rights results same...